History of Kitchen

A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation in a dwelling or in a commercial establishment. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator, counters and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher and other electric appliances. The main function of a kitchen is serving as a location for storing, cooking and preparing food (and doing related tasks such as dishwashing), but it may also be used for dining, entertaining and laundry.


The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying running water to private homes. Food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs.


The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen. Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room, usually next to a bathroom (so that both rooms could be heated by the kitchen fire), both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was often a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils.

In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own; they did their cooking in large public kitchens. Some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking.


1, Cookware Material

2, Bakeware Material

Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers, commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are considered both cookware and bakeware.

The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance (and cost), particularly in terms of thermal conductivityand how much food sticks to the item when in use.

Some choices of material also require special pre-preparation of the surface known as seasoning before they are used for food preparation.

Pots and pans made with this material are durable (some could last a lifetime or more) and are inert and non-reactive. Heat is also conducted evenly in this material. They can be used for both cooking on stove-tops and for baking in the oven.
Pots and pans made with this material are durable (some could last a lifetime or more) and are inert and non-reactive. Heat is also conducted evenly in this material. They can be used for both cooking on stove-tops and for baking in the oven.
Aluminum is a lightweight metal with very good thermal conductivity.
Cast aluminium can produce a thicker product than sheet aluminium, and is appropriate for irregular shapes and thicknesses.
In some cases unlined copper is desirable, for instance in the preparation of meringues and foams. But copper is reactive with acidic foods which can result in copper toxicity.
This was discovered in the new world when tomatoes were cooked in old world copper pots.
The solution was to line the pot with a thin inner layer of tin. A tin lining prevents copper from reacting with acidic foods.
Cast iron cookware is slow to heat, but once at temperature provides even heating.

1920s. In 1934, the French company Cousances designed the enameled cast iron Doufeu to reduce excessive evaporation and scorching in cast iron Dutch ovens.
Stainless steel is an iron alloy containing a minimum of 11.5% chromium.
Blends containing 18% chromium with either 8%nickel, called 18/8, or with 10% nickel, called 18/10, are commonly used for kitchen cookware.
Stainless steel's virtues are resistance to corrosion, non-reactivity with either alkaline or acidic foods, and resistance to scratching and denting. Stainless steel's drawbacks for cooking use is that it is a relatively poor heat conductor and its non-magnetic property, although recent developments have allowed the production of magnetic 18/10 alloys, and which thereby provides compatibility with induction cook tops, which require magnetic cookware.
Carbon steel cookware can be rolled or hammered into very thin sheets of material, while still maintaining high strength and heat resistance Like cast iron, carbon steel must be seasoned before use, usually by rubbing a fat or oil on the cooking surface and heating the cookware on the stovetop.
The process can be repeated if needed. Over time, the cooking surface will become dark and nonstick.
Non-stick pans were first created in 1893 Steel or aluminum cooking pans can be coated with a substance such as Poly Tetra Fluoroethylene (PTFE) in order to minimize food sticking to the pan surface.
There is some risk in the use of PTFE-based coatings. Although decomposition of the coating does not occur at normal cooking temperatures (below 260C (500F)], at 350C (662F) the material decomposes and emits toxic fumes.
The main difference in coating quality is due to the formulas of the liquid coating, the thickness of each layer and the number of layers used.
Enameled cast iron cooking vessels are made of cast iron covered with a porcelain surface. This creates a piece that has the heat distribution and retention properties of cast iron combined with a non-reactive, low-stick surface.
The enamel over steel technique creates a piece that has the heat distribution of carbon steel and a non-reactive, low-stick surface. Such pots are much lighter than most other pots of similar size, are cheaper to make than stainless steel pots, and do not have the rust and reactivity issues of cast iron or carbon steel.
Enamel over steel is ideal for large stockpots and for other large pans used mostly for water-based cooking. Because of its light weight and easy cleanup, enamel over steel is also popular for cookware used while camping.
Aluminum pans are typically clad on both their inside and the outside surfaces, providing both a stainless cooking surface and a stainless surface to contact the cooktop. Copper is typically clad on its interior surface only, leaving the more attractive copper exposed on the outside of the pan.
Some high-end cookware uses a dual-clad process, with a thin stainless layer on the cooking surface, a thick core of aluminum to provide structure and heat diffusion, and a thin layer of copper on the outside of the pot that provides additional diffusion and the "look" of a copper pot. This provides much of the functionality of tinned-copper pots for a fraction of the price.
Non-metallic cookware can be used in both conventional and microwave ovens.
Non-metallic cookware typically cannot be used on the stovetop, althoughCorningware and Pyroflam are some exceptions.
Glazed ceramics, such as porcelain, provide a nonstick cooking surface. Historically some glazes used on ceramic articles contained levels of lead, which can possess health risks; although this is not a concern with the vast majority of modern ware. Some pottery can be placed on fire directly.
Borosilicate glass is safe at oven temperatures. The clear glass also allows for the food to be seen during the cooking process. However, it cannot be used on a stovetop, as it cannot cope with stovetop temperatures.
Glass ceramic is used to make products such as Corningware and Pyroflam, which have many of the best properties of both glass and ceramic cookware. While Pyrex can shatter if taken between extremes.
Of temperature too rapidly, glass-ceramics can be taken directly from deep freeze to the stove top. Their very low coefficient of thermal expansion makes them less prone to thermal shock.
A natural stone can be used to diffuse heat for indirect grilling or baking, as in abaking stone or pizza stone, or the French pierrade.

History of Kitchenware

The use of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is unclear because the archaeological evidence is limited. Some researchers, however, have extrapolated likelydevelopments based on methods used by later peoples. Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by Stone Age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. Besides exposing food to direct heat from an open fire or hot embers, the food could have been covered with clay or largeleaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the food. Examples of similar techniques can be found in many modern cuisines. Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature (for example, a leaf-lined pit or the stomach from animals killed by hunters).

In many locations, the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels. Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay would have provided a usable container in Asia. The inhabitants of the Tehuacan Valley in Pueblo, Mexico, began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7000B.C.E.